1. Enterprise (Group) self -employed distribution model. This is a logistics model widely adopted by domestic production, circulation or comprehensive enterprises (groups). Enterprises (groups) have established logistics centers independently to provide items for various departments, venues, and stores within the enterprise. This logistics model combines the traditional "self -sufficient" "small farmers' consciousness", forming a new type of "large and comprehensive" and "small and comprehensive", causing new resources waste. Obviously, this model cannot meet the requirements of logistics in the era of e -commerce. However, at the present, it has played a role in meeting enterprises such as the supply of enterprises (groups) internal production materials, product exports, retail factory supply or regional market expansion. The typical enterprise (group) self -operated model is the logistics distribution of chain companies. Large -sized chain companies or groups (such as Beijing Hualian, Wal -Mart, Metro, etc.) basically complete their own logistics centers to complete the unified procurement, unified distribution and unified settlement of various internal and stores. 2. Third -party logistics distribution model. The third party of the Logistics Foreign Association, which is usually called third -party logistics, is a logistics form of the third party that is relatively "first -party" and the "second party" receiver to undertake corporate logistics activities. The third -party logistics model refers to a distribution operation mode that the two parties to the transaction entrust the distribution business they need to complete to the third party. This distribution model is gradually becoming a preferred model and direction for e -commerce websites to distribute goods. His services include designing logistics systems, electronic data exchange capabilities, report management, cargo collection, information management, warehousing, consulting, freight payment and negotiations. The e -commerce enterprise has a third -party logistics method that plays an important role in improving the operating efficiency of enterprises. (1) Concentrate to core business Couns should focus on their own main resources in their familiar main business, and leave logistics and other auxiliary functions to logistics companies. This can improve its main business market. Competitiveness. If a company with a large scale invested too much of funds for logistics by itself, then the funds invested in the main business will be reduced accordingly, and the market competitiveness of the company's main business will be greatly affected. (2) Flexible use of new technologies to achieve information replacement of inventory and reduce costs Due to the progress of science and technology, ordinary single manufacturing companies are usually difficult to update their resources and skills in a short time. Retailers may have different, constantly changing delivery and information technology needs. At this time, third -party logistics companies can meet these needs in a fast and more cost -effective way. These services are usually difficult to make a manufacturer's family. Do it. Similarly, third -party logistics suppliers also have the ability to meet the potential customer needs of a company, so that companies can contact retailers. (3) Reduce investment in fixed assets, accelerate the weekly transfer of capital The enterprise self -operated logistics requires a large amount of funds to purchase logistics equipment, and build professional logistics facilities such as warehouses and information networks. These resources are a heavy burden on enterprises that lack funds, especially small and medium -sized enterprises. And if the use of third -party logistics companies can not only reduce the investment in facilities, but also remove the funds occupation of warehouses and teams, and accelerate the turnover of funds. Compared with self -operated logistics, third -party logistics, while providing the above convenience for enterprises, will also bring a lot of disadvantages to enterprises. Mainly: enterprises cannot directly control the logistics function; they cannot guarantee the accuracy and timely supply of supply; the quality of customer service cannot be guaranteed and the long -term relationship with customers; enterprises will abandon the development of logistics professional technology. 3. Logistics integrated distribution mode. Logistics integration is developed on the basis of third -party logistics. The so -called logistics integration is a manufacturer with a logistics system as the core, through logistics enterprises and sales companies, until the overall and systematicization of consumer supply chain. In this model, logistics enterprises have established a wide range of agents or buying relationships with manufacturers, forming a relatively stable contractual relationship with sales companies, thereby uniformly combined the product or information of the manufacturer. , Delivery to the shop. This distribution model also manifested to exchange supply information between users, thereby playing the role of adjustment and reasonable use of resources. In the era of e -commerce, this is a relatively complete logistics distribution model. It is the advanced and mature stage of the development of the logistics industry. In China, the logistics distribution model of Haier Group can be said to have been integrated with logistics and is a very successful case. 4. Common delivery mode. Co -distribution is a distribution of many logistics companies when it is delivered to users in a certain area. It is carried out under the unified plan and unified scheduling of the distribution center. It mainly includes two forms of operation: First, a logistics company delivers multiple users, that is, a distribution company integrates the requirements of multiple users in a certain area, and arrange the delivery time, number, route and the number of goods, and comprehensively conduct a comprehensive cargo. Delivery; the second is to mix the goods that many users are waiting to be transported on the same car on the delivery session, and then transport the goods to each pick -up point according to the user's requirements, or it is transported to multiple users. The delivery of the delivery goods is on the receiving point. At present, the construction of large modern distribution centers cannot keep up with the development requirements of e -commerce logistics, and implementation of common distribution is a positive and feasible choice. From a micro perspective, enterprises can get the following benefits: First, to achieve the economic scale of distribution operations, improve the efficiency of logistics operations, and reduce the operating costs of the enterprise; Can save corporate resources. Secondly, enterprises can concentrate their energy to operate the core business, cultivate their core competitiveness, and better adapt to fierce market competition. Third, from the perspective of society, realizing common distribution can reduce the total number of vehicles in social vehicles, reduce the phenomenon of unloading in urban areas, and improve transportation conditions. Human resources to realize the sharing and effective use of social resources. The joint distribution also involves some difficult problems: First, the products operated by each owner are different, different product characteristics are different, and the requirements for distribution are different. There is a certain difficulty in joint distribution. Secondly, there is also a gap between the scale, business district, customers, and business consciousness of each enterprise, and it is often difficult to coordinate. There are also expenses, leaked concerns of commercial secrets, and so on.
In various e -commerce models, the most affected and restricted by logistics distribution is the B2C e -commerce model. Because B2C customers are end users of the supply chain, often buying a small amount and low -cost products at a time, and high requirements for distribution quality. At the same time, the logistics cost of such users is high, and the distribution efficiency is low. The gap generated by this logistics distribution obviously cannot meet the rapid development of my country's B2C e -commerce. Today, how to improve the logistics and distribution model of B2C e -commerce in my country, reduce logistics costs, and improve the distribution efficiency have become the attention and emphasis on B2C e -commerce operators. At present, China's B2C e -commerce logistics distribution mainly has the following typical modes: 1. With the help of the domestic postal system distribution model , this model is generally established by an enterprise or manufacturer website to establish a product warehouse on its business location, according to consumption according to consumption The online shopping list and consumer family address information, the postal delivery procedures are handled by the post office to send the goods to the consumer. This is the distribution mode selected by many small websites and C2C online stores. China Post is convenient, fast, and multi -faceted. It is the most widely covered and old -fashioned logistics company in China. However, the shortcomings are mainly the speed of normal postal mail, while the EMS service charges are high, and the level of postal system service is low, which can easily cause packaging damage and damage of goods, which will cause the decline in the quality of delivery services to cause customers to dissatisfy. 2. Common delivery mode Refers to the distribution of users in a certain area to improve the efficiency of logistics, multiple distribution companies jointly integrated the distribution under the unified plan of the distribution center and the unified scheduling of the distribution center. This is a collaborative distribution model between enterprises to achieve the rationalization of overall distribution, reduce logistics costs, and provide convenient logistics distribution services with mutual benefit and mutual benefit. The core is to enrich and strengthen the function of distribution. The advantage of common distribution is to help achieve the effective allocation of distribution resources, make up for the lack of functions of distribution enterprises, promote the improvement of enterprise distribution capabilities and expand the scale of distribution, better meet customer needs, improve delivery efficiency, and reduce delivery costs. The disadvantage is that different enterprises have different products, different management regulations, different business consciousness, and mutual suspicion may cause obstacles from another aspect. 3, third -party logistics enterprise distribution model In enterprise or manufacturer website based on consumer online shopping list and consumer home address information, entrusts the transportation, transportation, and warehousing chain operation network of "third -party express logistics companies". Send the product to consumers to realize the distribution service model. Using this model can make full use of the advanced logistics facilities and professional experience of third -party logistics companies for scale operation, bring economic benefits, reduce logistics costs, and rationally use social resources. 4. Enterprise self -employment distribution model The logistics delivery point set on its target market on its target market. That is, a storage center and distribution point are set up in the more intensive regions of the Internet, and the delivery center or delivery point near the consumer's location is distributed and delivered to the door. All links of the logistics distribution are prepared and managed by the enterprise itself. This model is conducive to the integrated operation of enterprise supply, production and sales. The degree of systemization is relatively high, and logistics distribution efficiency is high. It can overcome the problems that the previous model is not fast enough, but the construction of the distribution center and the distribution point requires a lot of investment. , Will bring a large increase in short -term costs.
At present, four types of modern e -commerce logistics distribution mainly uses the domestic postal system distribution model, common distribution model, third -party logistics enterprise distribution model, and enterprise self -employment distribution model. With the help of domestic postal system distribution models, it is generally enterprise or manufacturers' website Establish a product warehouse. According to the consumer online shopping list and consumer home address information, the postal delivery procedures are sent to consumers through the post office.
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